Climate Change is a a hotly debated topic with advocates and detractors on both sides.
Paleoclimatology is the study of tree rings, river and ocean sediments and ice cores to assist in learning the history of the earth.
Hurricanes or cyclones occur in the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Swirling around a calm "eye" the winds can reach out hundreds of miles. However,until the advent of radar and the "Hurricane Hunters" of the U.S. Air Force Reserve and NOAA's Aircraft Operations Center, coastal areas had little advanced warning.
Polar Studies covers both the North and South Poles. Some topics of concern are Sea Ice, Polar wildlife and the fauna, geology and climatology of the regions.
Water is basic component of our world. Unfortunately, too much water or too little water in a region can cause an ecological disaster. Examples of too little would be the present California drought and the 1930's Dust Bowl. New Orleans got too much water when Hurricane Katrina visited. So did the East Coast when Hurricane Sandy arrived.