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History of Art

Resources for Chicago Style Citations

Here are some  guides that will help you with formatting your paper and works cited page correctly: 

Long Island Unversity Color-Coded Chicago Style Guide: This guide has the components of citations color coded so that users new to the style can easily see how to put a citation together. NOTE: The references in this guide are using the Author-Date style, NOT the Notes and Bibliography style of CMS. Most often for art historical essays, you are asked for footnotes, which are formatted according to the Notes and Bibliography style.

OWL Purdue: Chicago Manual of Style: This guide is one that is fairly comprehensive and frequently recommended to students needing to cite various types of sources.  It was created and is kept up by the Online Writing Center (OWL) at Purdue University.

Chicago Manual of Style Quick Citation Guide: This guide is one created by CMS for some of the most frequently cited types of resources. This link is for the "Notes and Bibliography" type citation, which utilizes footnotes for references. Please notice that the full citation for the Bibliography differs from the one in the footnote. 

Here is a sample paper from OWL Purdue using Chicago Manual of Style. It includes notes about the formatting and should help you in formatting your own paper.

Citing Sources Using Chicago Style

Notes and Bibliography style, which utilizes footnotes and endnotes both for citing material and also to provide extra information should the author wish to, and the Author-Date style

Footnote Citations (Notes and Bibliography)

Citations for footnotes will differ depending on the type of resource you are citing. In general, CMS requires a full citation (like in your bibliography), with a few differences in your footnote. Differences include:

  • The author(s)'s name(s) will be listed as firstname lastname, rather than lastname, firstname like it is in the Bibliography. 
  • The publication information will be in parentheses.
  • There will be a comma after the publication information, with page numbers citing either your quote or the pages in which you found the information you're using.

Example: 

1. Barry Estabrook. Pig Tales: An Omnivore's Quest for Sustainable Meat. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2015), 15-25.

In some cases, it may be appropriate to use a shortened citation in a footnote. That would look like this

1. Estabrook, Pig Tales, 15-25.

In-Text or Parenthetical Citations (Author-Date)

In-text citations can also be used to tell your professor which source you used at a specific point in the paper.

These citations also correspond to the full citation found in the Bibliography at the end of your paper.

Here are three examples of in-text citations:

  1. Use a signal phrase and a quote. A signal phrase introduces the author in a lead in a sentence with a quote, and then places the publication year and page number at the end.
    • Pollan explains that "the apple, like the settlers themselves, had to forsake its former domestic life and return to the wild before it could be reborn as an American"  (2001,13).
  2. Use a direct quote. A direct quote places the author, publication year and page number in parenthesis at the end.
    • "In effect, the apple like the settlers themselves, had to forsake its former domestic life and return to the wild before it could be reborn as an American" (Pollan, 2001, 13).
  3. Use a signal phrase and a paraphrase. A signal phrase introduces the author in the sentence, and rather than quote the author directly, you restate the author's ideas in your own words. This is followed by the publication year and page number in parenthesis.
    • Michael Pollan compares the apple to the settler, because both required an experience in the wild in order to fully express the American experience (2001, 13).

Chicago Manual of Style

Bibliography

Reference List Citations

The reference list includes full citations all sources used in your paper. This should be organized alphabetically according to author last name. If your source has no author, use the first letter of the title. For the Notes and Bibliography style, this list of references will be called "Bibliography." If you are using the Author Date style, title your list "References" or "Works Cited." Note the difference in the following two examples of where the date is placed. 

Example: Bibliography (Notes and Bibliography Style)

Estabrook, Barry. Pig Tales: An Omnivore's Quest for Sustainable MeatNew York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2015.

Pollan, Michael. The Botany of Desire. New York: Random House, 2001.

Example: References (Author-Date Style)

Estabrook, Barry. 2015Pig Tales: An Omnivore's Quest for Sustainable Meat. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Pollan, Michael. 2001The Botony of Desire. New York: Random House.