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Budget and Appropriations

Budgets and Appropriations - Ohio

Contents

Introduction
Process
Resources
Further Reading


Introduction

The budget process at the state level is very similar to that of the Federal Government and can be researched in much the same manner.  Most states (unlike the federal government) must have a balanced budget.  They cannot spend more than the state has collected in revenue through taxes and fees, etc.  States generally divide their budgets into two types: Capitaland Operating.   Capital budgets cover concrete items such as building bridges and roads, equipment, land acquisition, etc.  Capital budgets are generally for a limited time period.  In some states it may also include funding to local governments and public authorities for infrastructure improvements such as economic development.  Operating Budgets on the other hand cover ongoing funding needs of the state and its agencies for such things as salaries.

In Ohio every two years, the Executive branch develops and presents to the Legislative branch a budget. Under the Ohio Constitution, no appropriation can be made for a longer period than two years.  The process begins in July of an even numbered year with the Office of Budget and Management and ends by June of the next year, with the governor signing into law the appropriate acts to fund the activities of the state for the next fiscal year.


Process

Step 1: Budget Requests
The Office of Budget and Management (OBM) in July begins the process and the affected state agencies must submit their requests by early November.

Step 2: Requests Reviewed
The OBM reviews the agencies' funding requests and, after feedback from the agencies, sends its recommendations to the Governor.

Step 3: Preliminary Recommendations
OBM working with the Governor and the Governor's staff comes up with preliminary budget recommendations based on the funding requests submitted, which in turn, are shared with the agencies involved.

Step 4: The Executive Budget
The approved funding requests are compiled as part of the Executive Budget, which includes a report on "tax expenditures" from the Department of Taxation.

Step 5: Governor Presents the Executive Budget
The Governor presents the Executive Budget to the General Assembly between January and March 15th.

Step 6: From Budget to Bill
The Legislative Service Commission turns the Executive Budget into bills which are in turn introduced in the House of Representatives.

Step 7: Committee Hearings and Revisions
The House of Representatives holds subcommittee hearings on the bills. If the subcommittees recommend changes to the bills, these changes appear as substitute bills. The substitute bills are then considered and amended by the full committee, reported, and sent to the House floor for third consideration.

Step 8: Onward to the Senate
Once passed by the House of Representatives, the bills are sent to the Senate where they are reviewed in a very similar process.

Step 9: Conference Committees
Education and main operating appropriations bills are normally sent to a conference committee. The committee holds hearings and prepares a report for the House and the Senate.

Step 10: From Bill to Act
Once both the House and the Senate agree on the wording of the bill, it becomes an act and is reviewed by the appropriate executive agencies, and finally is signed by the Governor. The Governor can veto parts of an Act, but once he signs it, it goes into effect immediately.

Like the federal budget, this process is reiterative until all the agencies, departments, etc., are funded.  Like on the Federal Level, researching state funding is a matter of locating the appropriate documents, reports, bills, newspaper articles, etc., many of which are available online.

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Resources

Acts  (The Ohio Legislature 131st General Assembly)
Current Assembly 
Past Assemblies 

Budget.  (Ohio Legislative Service Commission)  Contains information on Appropriations Bills, etc. 

Budget in Brief.  (Ohio Legislative Service Commission)  Summary of budget as introduced 128th-present General Assembly.  Paper version for selected years held by the State Library of Ohio. 

Budget in Detail.  (Ohio Legislative Service Commission)  Contains information on budget as it was introduced until it was enacted from the 124th General Assembly-current. 

The Budget.  State of Ohio.  February 16, 1915 to June 30, 1915.  July 1, 1915 to June 30, 1916.  July 1, 1916 to June 30, 1917.  Ohio Budget Commission.  Columbus, Ohio:  The F. J. Heer Printing Company, 1915. 

Budget 1917-18.  Ohio Budget Commission.  Columbus, Ohio:  [F. J. Heer Print Co.?], 1917. 

Catalog of Budget Line Items.  (Ohio Legislative Service Commission)  Incomplete 1997-2016. 

Digest of Enactments.  (Ohio Legislative Service Commission)  Appropriations, etc. from 1997-2015.

Digest of Enactments, General Assembly.  Ohio General Assembly, Legislative Service Commission.  Columbus, Ohio:  Ohio Legislative Service Commission, [1995- ].  Began with 121st General Assembly in 1995.  Some years have supplements.  

Executive Budget of Ohio:  Together with Budget Commissioner’s Report of Revenues and Expenditures.  Columbus, Ohio:  The Governor, 1919-.   1921-1934.  Title varies slightly over time.

Hannah Capitol Connection. {Restricted Use}  Contains information on Appropriation Bills, House and Senate Reports, etc.

HatiTrust Digital Library.  (HatiTrust)  {Restricted Use}  Digital repository of books, reports, documents, etc. including budgets. 

House Journals.  (The Ohio House of Representatives)  Contains information on Appropriation Bills.

Journal of the House of Representatives of the … General Assembly of Ohio.  Ohio General Assembly, House of Representatives.  Columbus, Ohio:  National Graphics Corporation, [1975- ]. 

Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Ohio.  Ohio General Assembly, House of Representatives.  Chillicothe, Ohio:  The State, [1803-1972].  Incomplete holdings 1807-1972.

Journals of the Senate and House of Representatives.  Ohio General Assembly, Senate.  Columbus, Ohio:  [ , 1973-1974]. 

Journal of the Senate of the State of Ohio.  Ohio General Assembly, Senate.  Zanesville, Ohio:  [The State]/Sawyer & Chambers, [1803-1972]  Incomplete holdings 1808-1972. 

Journals of the Senate of the … General Assembly of the State of Ohio.  Ohio General Assembly, Senate.  Columbus, Ohio:  National Graphics Corporation, [1975-]. 

Legislation Enacted by … General Assembly.  Ohio General Assembly, Legislative Service Commission.  Columbus, Ohio:  Ohio Legislative Service Commission, [1961]. 

Legislation:  Enactments, … General Assembly.  Ohio General Assembly, Legislative Service Commission.  Columbus, Ohio:  Ohio Legislative Service Commission, [1963 -1964]. 

LibWeb.  (Lib-Web.org)  Links to libraries throughout the world by geographical region then library type such as public, academic, etc. 

LSC Redbooks.  (Ohio Legislative Services Commission)  Information on an individual agency’s budget.  124th – present. 

Newspapers.  (The Ohio State University. University Libraries)  List of newspaper indices. 

Ohio General Assembly.  (The Ohio Legislature)  Contains information on Appropriations Bills, Budgets, House and Senate Reports, etc.

Senate Journals.  (The Ohio Senate)  Contains information on Appropriations Bills

State Government.  (USA.gov)  Links to the official website of each state, the District of Columbia, U.S. territories, etc.

State Government Offices, Local US Government, City Government and Federal Government.  (State and Local Government on the Net)  Links to the official websites of counties and municipalities within a state.  Select a State, then a county, etc.

State of Ohio Budgets.  (State of Ohio. Office of Budget and Management) 
Capital Budgets
Operating Budgets

State of Ohio Executive Budget.  Columbus, Ohio:  The Governor, -1973.  1935-1973.  

State of Ohio Executive Budget.  Ohio Office of Budget and Management.  [Columbus, Ohio]:  Office of Budget and Management, [1975-2003].   1975-2003 

States’ Proposed & Enacted Budgets.  (National Association of State Budget Officers) 

Summary of Enactments.  Ohio General Assembly, Legislative Service Commission.  Columbus, Ohio:  Ohio Legislative Service Commission, [ -1994].  1967-1994.  

Summary of Legislation … General Assembly.  Ohio General Assembly, Legislative Service Commission.  Columbus, Ohio:  Ohio Legislative Service Commission, [ -1960].  1957-1960.

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Further Reading

Budget Processes in the States.  Washington, D.C.:  National Association of State Budget Officers, 1975-. [Current]  [Archives]

A Guidebook for Ohio Legislators.  Chapter 8. The Ohio Budget Process.  14th Edition.  Columbus, Ohio:  Ohio Legislative Service Commission, 2015, p.73-86.  

Legislative Process - Ohio’s State Budget Process.  (Advocates for Ohio’s Future)  

Ohio Budget Process.  (Disability Rights Ohio. Ohio Disability Rights Law and Policy Center, Inc.)

State and Local Taxes.  (Tax Policy Center)  General information on revenue streams for the State and Local Governments.

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