Budget and Appropriations

Budgets and Appropriations - Other States

Most states unlike the federal government have some sort of balanced budget requirement.   How this requirement is codified varies from state to state.  The only state that currently has no such requirement is Vermont.  States generally divide their budgets into two types Capital and Operating.   Capital budgets cover concrete items such things as building bridges and roads, equipment, land acquisition, etc.  Capital budgets are generally for a limited time period.  In some states it may also include funding to local governments and public authorities for infrastructure improvements such as economic development.   Operating Budgets on the other hand cover ongoing funding needs of the state and its agencies for such things as salaries, etc.

Researching the budgets and appropriations of other states is done in much the same way as that in Ohio.  Because Nebraska has a unicameral legislature, its process is somewhat streamlined. But even Nebraska follows the general rule that the executive branch develops and submits a budget; the legislative branch studies it and appropriates funds; and the Governor then must sign a final version.


Current Governors. (National Governors Association)  Provides links to each state's governor’s official web site and the state’s official web site plus contact and biographical information on current governor, and former governors.

HatiTrust Digital Library. (HatiTrust)  {Restricted Use}  Digital repository of books, reports, documents, etc. including budgets. 

LibWeb. (Lib-Web.org)  Links to libraries throughout the world by geographical region then library type such as public, academic, etc. 

Newspapers. (The Ohio State University. University Libraries)  List of newspaper indices. 

Proposed & Enacted Budgets. (National Association of State Budget Officers) 

State Homepages. (StateLocalgov.net)  Links to the official homepages for the fifty states..

Also check the state legislature’s and governor’s websites, newspapers and libraries, etc., many of which are available online.


Further Reading

Briefing Book. Chapter 5 - The State of State (and Local) Tax Policy. (Urban Institute & Brookings Institution. Tax Policy Center)  General information on revenue streams and other budgetary matters for the State and Local Governments.

Budget Processes in the States.  Washington, D.C.:  National Association of State Budget Officers, Spring 2021.  Archives.

Public Budgeting in ContextKatherine Willoughby.    San Francisco, California:  Jossey-Bass, 2014.  Examines the public budgeting process, budgeting policies, legal framework on the federal, state and local levels as well as several foreign counties.  [Access restricted] 

Sustaining the States:  The Fiscal Viability of American State Governments.  Marilyn Marks Rubin and  Katherine G. Willoughby (Editors)  Boca Raton, Florida:  CRS Press, 2015.  Explores the American system bottom-up system of federalism, focusing on state level budgeting and appropriation and the impact that these have on the state and national level. 

Understanding Government Budgets:  A Practical Guide.  R. Mark Musell.  2nd Edition.  Milton Park, England; New York, New York :  Routledge, 2020.  Explanation of various types budgets employed by federal, state and local governments and the information contained in each.