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Earth Sciences

Overview

This collection of public domain documents was selected as a foundation to preserve and provide greater access to early writings on the geology of Ohio.  It includes the work of the early geologic surveys and to this core we will continue to add documents. 

These documents have been made available through the combined efforts and funding of the Ohio Geological Survey and The Ohio State University Libraries.

We want to thank them for their generosity and support.   

The Mather Survey, The First Geological Survey of Ohio (1837-1838)

The Geological Survey of Ohio was established by the state legislature on March 27, 1837.  William Williams Mather was appointed Principal Geologist.  The Survey conducted field work in 1837 and 1838. 

Report of the special committee appointed on so much of the governor's message as relates to a mineralogical and geological survey of the state of Ohio (1835?)

 

Publications

 

The Second Geological Survey of Ohio (1869-1888) (Newberry and Orton, Sr.)

The Second Geological Survey of Ohio was established by the State Legislature in 1869 and John Strong Newberry was chosen as State Geologist. He served until 1882 at which time, his assistant, Edward Orton. Sr. became State Geologist.

 

Publications

 

Third Organization of the Geological Survey of Ohio 1889-1899 (Edward Orton, Sr.)

Publications:

The Fourth Organization of the Geological Survey of Ohio (1900 - 1949), (Edward Orton, Jr.)

Publications:
 

Published by authority of the Legislature of Ohio, Columbus, Ohio : Nevins & Meyers, 1873-1906

Print volumes available in the Orton Memorial Library of Geology QE151.A16 1873a.

Table of Contents for Report Volumes

Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio, Vol. 1: Geology and Paleontology

A joint project of OSU Libraries and the Ohio Geological Survey.

Volume 1 was also published in German.

Bericht uber die Geologische aufnahme von Ohio v.1 pt.1 (1873)
Bericht uber die Geologische aufnahme von Ohio; v.1 pt.2

Skip to part two Paleontology

Volume 1, Part 1, Geology

Section One
General Geology

Chapter 1 (Pages 1-15) Historical Sketch - J.S. Newberry
Chapter 2 (Pages 16-49) Physical Geography of Ohio - J.S. Newberry
Chapter 3 (Pages 50-88) Geological Relations of Ohio - J.S. Newberry
Chapter 4 (Pages 89-139) Geological Structure of Ohio — Silurian System - J.S. Newberry
Chapter 5 (Pages 140-167) Geological Structure of Ohio — Devonian System - J.S. Newberry

Section Two
Local Geology

Chapter 6 (Pages 171-200) Geology of Cuyahoga County - J.S. Newberry
Chapter 7 (Pages 201-222) Geology of Summit County - J.S. Newberry
Chapter 8 (Pages 225-246) Geology of Gallia County - E.B. Andrews
Chapter 9 (Pages 247-260) Geology of Meigs County - E.B. Andrews
Chapter 10 (Pages 261-293) Geology of Athens County - E.B. Andrews
Chapter 11 (Pages 294-313) Geology of Morgan County - E.B. Andrews
Chapter 12 (Pages 314-364) Geology of Muskingum County, and General Conclusions - E.B. Andrews
Chapter 13 (Pages 365-418) Geology of the Cincinnati Group - Edward Orton
Chapter 14 (Pages 419-434) Geology of Hamilton County - Edward Orton
Chapter 15 (Pages 435-449) Geology of Clermont County - Edward Orton
Chapter 16 (Pages 450-480) Geology of Clarke County - Edward Orton
Chapter 17 (Pages 481-492) Geology of Ashtabula County - M.C. Read
Chapter 18 (Pages 493-509) Geology of Trumbull County - M.C. Read
Chapter 19 (Pages 510-519) Geology of Lake County - M.C. Read
Chapter 20 (Pages 520-533) Geology of Geauga County - M.C. Read
Chapter 21 (Pages 535-556) Surface Geology of the Maumee Valley - G.K. Gilbert
Chapter 22 (Pages 557-566) Geology of Williams County - G.K. Gilbert
Chapter 23 (Pages 567-572) Geology of Fulton County - G.K. Gilbert
Chapter 24 (Pages 573-587) Geology of Lucas County - G.K. Gilbert
Chapter 25 (Pages 588-590) Geology of West Sister Island - G.K. Gilbert
Chapter 26 (Pages 593-610) Geology of Sandusky County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 27 (Pages 611-624) Geology of Seneca County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 28 (Pages 625-639) Geology of Wyandot County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 29 (Pages 640-645) Geology of Marion County - N.H. Winchell

Appendices
Appendix A (Pages 649-665) Tables on Temperature and Rainfall
Appendix B (Pages 666-672) Profiles of Railroads and Canals
Index (Pages 673-680)
Maps 6-10 from part 1 Grouped Sections of Gallia, Meigs, Athens, Morgan and Muskingum County

Volume 1, Part 2, Paleontology

Section One
Descriptions of Invertebrate Fossils of the Silurian and Devonian Systems (Pages 1-246) F.B. Meek

Section Two
Description of Fossil Fishes (Pages 247-358) J.S. Newberry

Section Three
Description of Fossil Plants (Pages 359-399) J.S. Newberry
Index and Errata (Pages 387-401)
Diagrams of crinoids (from section 1) and Plates 1-48 from part 2

Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio, Vol.2: Geology and Paleontology

A joint project of OSU Libraries and the Ohio Geological Survey.

Volume 2 was also published in German
Bericht uber die Geologische aufnahme von Ohio; v.2 pt.1
Bericht uber die Geologische aufnahme von Ohio; v.2 pt.2

Volume 2,Part 1, Geology

Section One General Geology

Chapter 30 (Pages 1-80) Surface Geology - J.S. Newberry
Chapter 31 (Pages 81-180) The Carboniferous System - J.S. Newberry
 

Section Two Local Geology

Chapter 32 (Pages 183-205) Geology of Erie County and the Islands - J.S. Newberry
Chapter 33 (Pages 206-224) Geology of Lorain County - J.S. Newberry
Chapter 34 (Pages 227-235) Geology of Ottawa County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 35 (Pages 236-252) Geology of Crawford County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 36 (Pages 253-271) Geology of Morrow County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 37 (Pages 272-313) Geology of Delaware County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 38 (Pages 314-323) Geology of Van Wert County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 39 (Pages 324-334) Geology of Union County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 40 (Pages 335-351) Geology of Paulding County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 41 (Pages 352-357) Geology of Hardin County, and General Conclusions - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 42 (Pages 358-367) Geology of Hancock County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 43 (Pages 368-386) Geology of Wood County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 44 (Pages 387-396) Geology of Putnam County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 45 (Pages 397-403) Geology of Allen County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 46 (Pages 404-409) Geology of Auglaize County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 47 (Pages 410-414) Geology of Mercer County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 48 (Pages 415-421) Geology of Henry County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 49 (Pages 422-438) Geology of Defiance County - N.H. Winchell
Chapter 50 (Pages 441-452) Surface Geology of South-Eastern Ohio - E. B. Andrews
Chapter 51 (Pages 453-508) Geology of Washington County - E. B. Andrews
Chapter 52 (Pages 509-528) Geology of Noble County - E. B. Andrews
Chapter 53 (Pages 529-542) Geology of Guernsey County (Southern half) - E. B. Andrews
Chapter 54 (Pages 543-569) Geology of Belmont County (Southern half) - E. B. Andrews
Chapter 55 (Pages 570-587) Geology of Monroe County - E. B. Andrews
Chapter 56 (Pages 588-608) Geology of Pickaway and Fairfield Counties - E. B. Andrews
Chapter 57 (Pages 611-641) Geology of Pike County - Edward Orton
Chapter 58 (Pages 642-658) Geology of Ross County - Edward Orton
Chapter 59 (Pages 659-696) Geology of Greene County - Edward Orton
Index to part one (Pages 697-701)


Volume 2 Part 2, Paleontology


Descriptions of Fossil Fishes (Pages 1-64) J. S. Newberry
Description of Silurian Fossils (Pages 65-161) James Hall and R. P. Whitfield
Description of Crinoidea from the Waverly Group (Pages 162-179) James Hall and R. P. Whitfield
Description of the Corals of the Silurian and Devonian Systems (Pages 181-268) H. Alleyne Nicholson
Description of Invertebrate Fossils from the Carboniferous System (Pages 269-347)
[Invertebrate Fossils pf the Waverly Group and Coal Measures of Ohio] F. B. Meek
Synopsis of the Extinct Batrachia from the Coal Measures (Pages 349-411) E. D. Cope
Description of Fossil Plants from Lower Carboniferous strata (Pages 413-426) E. B. Andrews
Index and Errata (Pages 427-436)
Plates 1-59 from part 2

Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio Vol.3: Geology and Paleontology

A joint project of OSU Libraries and the Ohio Geological Survey.

Volume 3 was also published in German

published 1878

Volume 3 Part 1 (only part published)

Table of Contents and Preface (Pages i-viii)

Section One General Geology

Chapter 55 (Pages 1-51) Review of the Geological Structure of Ohio - J.S. Newberry
 

Section Two Local Geology

Chapter 56 (Pages 52-89) Geology of Tuscarawas County - J.S. Newberry
Chapter 57 (Pages 90-132) Geology of Columbiana County - J.S. Newberry
Chapter 58 (Pages 133-150) Geology of Portage County - J.S. Newberry
Chapter 59 (Pages 151-176) Geology of Stark County - J.S. Newberry
Chapter 60 (Pages 177-199) Geology of Carroll County - Jno. J. Stevenson
Chapter 61 (Pages 200-218) Geology of Harrison County - Jno. J. Stevenson
Chapter 62 (Pages 210-239) Geology of Guernsey County - Jno. J. Stevenson
Chapter 63 (Pages 237-260) Geology of Muskingum County - Jno. J. Stevenson
Chapter 64 (Pages 261-287) Geology of Belmont County - Jno. J. Stevenson
Chapter 65 (Pages 289-309) Geology of Huron County - M.C. Read
Chapter 66 (Pages 310-324) Geology of Richland County - M.C. Read
Chapter 67 (Pages 325-347) Geology of Knox County - M.C. Read
Chapter 68 (Pages 348-361) Geology of Licking County - M.C. Read
Chapter 69 (Pages 362-380) Geology of Medina County - Alfred W. Wheat
Chapter 70 (Pages 381-391) Geology of Warren County - Edward Orton
Chapter 71 (Pages 392-403) Geology of Butler County - Edward Orton
Chapter 72 (Pages 404-419) Geology of Preble County - Edward Orton
Chapter 73 (Pages 420-428) Geology of Madison County - Edward Orton
Chapter 74 (Pages 429-447) Geology of Clinton and Fayette Counties - John Hussey
Chapter 75 (Pages 448-467) Geology of Shelby County - John Hussey
Chapter 76 (Pages 468-481) Geology of Miami County - John Hussey
Chapter 77 (Pages 482-490) Geology of Logan County - Franklin C. Hill
Chapter 78 (Pages 491-495) Geology of Champaign County - Franklin C. Hill
 Chapter 79 (Pages 496-518) Geology of Darke County - A.C Lindemuth
Chapter 80 (Pages 519-528) Geology of Ashland County - M.C. Read
Chapter 81 (Pages 529-539) Geology of Wayne County - M.C. Read
Chapter 82 (Pages 540-561) Geology of Holmes County - M.C. Read
Chapter 83 (Pages 562-595) Geology of Coshocton County - J.T. Hodge
Chapter 84 (Pages 596-646) Geology of Franklin County - Edward Orton
Chapter 85 (Pages 647-715) Geology of Hocking County - M.C. Read
Chapter 86 (Pages 716-780) Geology of Jefferson County - J.S. Newberry
Chapter 87 (Pages 781-814) Geology of Mahoning County - J.S. Newberry
Chapter 88 (Pages 815-882) Supplemental Report on Perry County and Portions of Hocking and Athens Counties - E.B. Andrews
Chapter 89 (Pages 883-941) Supplemental Report on the Hanging Rock District - Edward Orton
Chapter 90 (Pages 942-944) Geology of Brown County - H. Herzer
Index (Pages 945-954)
Index to the llustrations of Volume 3 and Errata (Pages 955-958)

Report of the Geological survey of Ohio Vol. 4: Zoology and Botany (part 1)

A joint project of OSU Libraries and the Ohio Geological Survey.

Volume 4 was also published in German

Volume 4, Part 1 Zoology (only part published)

Title Page  pub. 1882
Table of Contents and Preface (Pages i-viii)

Section One

 Report on the Mammalia of Ohio (Pages 1-185) - A.W Brayton 

Section Two

Report on the Birds of Ohio - J.M Wheaton (pages 178-628)

 Section Three

Report on the Reptiles and Amphibians of Ohio - W.H. Smith (pages 629-734)

Section Four

Report on the Fishes of Ohio - David L. Jordan (pages 735-1002)

Volume 4 Index (Pages 1003-1020)

 

Report of the Geological survey of Ohio Vol. 5: Economic Geology

A joint project of OSU Libraries and the Ohio Geological Survey.

Volume 5 Economic Geology

Title Page  pub. 1884
Table of Contents and Preface (Pages i-xvi)
Chapter 1 (Pages 1-128) The Stratigraphical Order of the Lower Coal Measures of Ohio - Edward Orton
Chapter 2 (Pages 129-168) The Coal Seams of the Lower Coal Measures of Ohio, in part (Methods - General Characteristics) - Edward Orton
Chapter 3 (Pages 169-300) The Coal Seams of the Lower Coal Measures of Ohio (Mahoning, Columbiana, Jefferson, Portage, Stark, Carroll, Tuscarawas, Guernsey) - Edward Orton
Chapter 4 (Pages 301-370) Coal Mining in Ohio - Andrew Roy
Chapter 5 (Pages 371-437) The Iron Ores of Ohio - Edward Orton
Chapter 6 (Pages 438-554) Iron Manufacture of Ohio - N.W. Lord
Chapter 7 (Pages 555-576) The Manufacture of Coke - Henry Newton
Chapter 8 (Pages 577-642) Building Stones of Ohio compiled from notes of Professor Orton
Chapter 9 (Pages 643-721) The Clays of Ohio Edward Orton, Jr.
Chapter 10 (Pages 722-749) The Gas Coals of Ohio - Emerson McMillin
Chapter 11 (Pages 750-772) The Glacial Boundary of Ohio - G. Frederick Wright
Chapter 12 (Pages 773-815) The Coal Seams of the Lower Measures of Ohio - continued (The Massillon Coal Field) - Edward Orton
Chapter 13 (Pages 816-842) The Coal Seams of the Lower Measures of Ohio - continued - (Mines of Holmes County) -
Albert A. Wright

Chapter 14 (Pages 843-867) The Coal Seams of the Lower Measures of Ohio - continued - (Mines of Coshocton County) - Edward Orton, Jr.
Chapter 15 (Pages 868-911) The Coal Seams of the Lower Measures of Ohio - continued - (Mines of Muskingum and of Licking Counties, and of the Northern Half of Perry County)- Edward Orton
Chapter 16 (Pages 912-991) The Coal Seams of the Lower Measures of Ohio - continued - (The Hocking Valley Coal Field) - Edward Orton
Chapter 17 (Pages 992-1034) The Coal Seams of the Lower Measures of Ohio - continued - (Mines of Vinton and Jackson Counties) - Edward Orton
Chapter 18 (Pages 1035-1058) The Coal Seams of the Lower Measures of Ohio - continued - (Mines of Scioto and Lawrence Counties, and of the Western Part of Gallia County) - Edward Orton
Chapter 19 (Pages 1059-1086) The Meigs Creek Coal Seam in Morgan, Muskingum, Guernsey and Noble Counties - C. Newton Brown
Chapter 20 (Pages 1087-1113) Report of the Chemical Department - N.W. Lord
Maps from Volume 5 after page 1113

  Volume 5 Index (Pages 1115-1124)

Report of the Geological survey of Ohio vol. 6: Economic Geology

A joint project of OSU Libraries and the Ohio Geological Survey.

Volume 6 Economic Geology

Title Page  pub. 1888
Table of Contents and Preface (Pages i-x)
Chapter 1 (Pages 1-51) The Geology of Ohio Considered in Its Relation to Petroleum and Natural Gas - Edward Orton
Chapter 2 (Pages 60-100) The Origin and Accumulation of Petroleum and Natural gas - Edward Orton
Chapter 3 (Pages 101-310) The Trenton Limestone as a Source of Oil and Gas in Ohio - Edward Orton
Chapter 4 (Pages 311-409) Berea Grit as a Source of Oil and Gas in Ohio - Edward Orton
Chapter 5 (Pages 410-442) The Ohio Shale as a Source of Oil and Gas in Ohio - Edward Orton
Chapter 6 (Pages 443-475) The History and Development of the Macksburg Oil Field - F.W. Minshall
Chapter 7 (Pages 476-515) The Drilling and Care of Oil Wells - Fred H. Newell
Chapter 8 (Pages 516-547) The Transportation, Uses and Modes of Using Natural Gas - N.W. Lord
Chapter 9 (Pages 548-594) Measurement of Gas Wells and Other Gases Streams, and the Piping of Natural Gas - S.W. Robinson
Chapter 10 (Pages 595-626) The Pittsburgh Coal Seam in Jefferson, Belmont and Guernsey Counties - C. Newton Brown
Chapter 11 (Pages 627-652) The Pomeroy and Federal Creek Coal Field - Ellis Lovejoy
Chapter 12 (Pages 653-670) The Manufacture of Salt and Bromine - W.J. Root
Chapter 13 (Pages 671-695) Natural and Artificial Cements - N.W. Lord
Chapter 14 (Pages 696-702) Gypsum or Land Plaster in Ohio - Edward Orton
Chapter 15 (Pages 703-771) The Production of Lime in Ohio - Edward Orton
Chapter 16 (Pages 772-782) The Drift Deposits of Ohio - Edward Orton
Chapter 17
(Pages 783-792) Supplemental Report on the New Gas Fields and Oil Fields of Ohio - Edward Orton
Appendix (Pages 793-820) Table Giving Elevations Above Seal Level in the Counties of Ohio
Volume 6 Index
(Pages 821-831)

Report of the Geological survey of Ohio Vol. 7:Economic Geology, Archaeology, Botany and Paleontology

A joint project of OSU Libraries and the Ohio Geological Survey.

Volume 7

Title Page   pub. 1893

Table of Contents and Preface (Pages i-xviii)

Part One Economic Geology

Chapter 1 (Pages 1-44) Geological Scale and Geological Structure of Ohio - Edward Orton
Chapter 2 (Pages 45-68) The Clays of Ohio, their Origin, Composition and Varieties - Edward Orton
Chapter 3 (Pages 69-254) The Clay Working Industries of Ohio - Edward Orton, Jr.
Chapter 4 (Pages 255-290) The Coal Fields of Ohio - Edward Orton

Section Two General

Chapter 1 (Pages 1-55) The Archaeology of Ohio - Gerard Fowke
Chapter 2 (Pages 56-406) The Botany of Ohio - W.A. Kellerman and W.C. Werner
Chapter 3 (Pages 407-494) Contributions to the Paleontology of Ohio - R.T. Whitfield
Chapter 4 (Pages 495-515) Observations on the so-called Waverly Group of Ohio - C.L. Herrick
Chapter 5 (Pages 516-601) Fossils of the Clinton Group in Ohio and Indiana - Aug. F. Foreste
Chapter 6 (Pages 602-626) The Fossil Fishes of Ohio - E.W. Claypole and A.A. Wright
Chapter 7 (Pages 627-693) New and Little Known Lamellibranchiata from the Lower Silurian Rocks of Ohio and Adjacent States - E.O. Ulrich
Volume 7 Index (Pages 697-701)

Report of the Geological survey of Ohio Vol. 8: Reports on Various Minerals (Bull. 1-3 of the 4th Series)

A joint project of OSU Libraries and the Ohio Geological Survey.

Volume 8

Title Page  pub. 1906
Preface and Letter of Transmittal (Pages 1-26)  The organization and work of the Geological Survey of Ohio, Edward Orton, Jr.

Bulletin One
The Occurrence and Exploitation of Petroleum and natural gas in Ohio - John Adams Bownocker

Bulletin Two
The Use of Hydraulic Cements - Frank H. Eno

Bulletin Three
The Manufacture of Hydraulic Cements - Albert V. Bleininger

Report of the Geological survey of Ohio Vol. 9: Bulletins 4-8 of the 4th Series

A joint project of OSU Libraries and the Ohio Geological Survey.

Volume 9

Title Page  pub. 1906
Preface and Financial Reports (Pages i-xxxiv)
Table Of Contents (Pages 5-12)
Introduction (Pages 13-19)

Bulletin Four
 

The Limestone Resources and Lime Industry in Ohio, Edward Orton, Jr. and Samuel Vernon Peppel, 365 p., illus., 1906

Bulletin Five

The Manufacture of Artificial Sandstone or Sand-Lime Brick, Sameul Vernon Peppel, 79 p., illus., 1905.

Bulletin Six

A bibliography of Ohio geology, Alice Greenwood Derby and Mary Wilson Prosser, 332 p., 1906
 

Bulletin Seven

Revised Nomenclature of the Geological Formations, Charles S. Prosser, 36p., 1905

Bulletin Eight

Salt Deposits and the Salt Industry in Ohio, John Adams Bownocker, 42p., illus. 1906

Report of the Geological survey of Ohio Vol. 10: Bulletins 9-11 of the 4th Series

A joint project of OSU Libraries and the Ohio Geological Survey.

Volume 10

Title Page  pub. 1913
Summary of Publications available from the Survey (Pages i-xi)
Table of Contents (Pages xiii-xxv)

Bulletin Nine
Coal, by J.A. Bownocker, N.W. Loard and E. E. Somermeier, 342 p., illus (maps at the end of Volume 10), 1908 

Bulletin Ten
The Middle Devonian of Ohio by Clinton R. Stauffer, 204 p., illus., 1910

Bulletin Eleven
The Manufacture of Roofing Tiles by Wolsey Garnet Worcester with Edward Orton, Jr., 476 p., illus., 1910

Maps (Bulletin 9, Map of Pittsburg Coal and Map of the Pomeroy and Meigs Creek Coal) 
Geological Map of Ohio

Report of the Geological survey of Ohio Vol. 11: Bulletins 12-15 of the 4th Series

A joint project of OSU Libraries and the Ohio Geological Survey.

Volume 11

Title page and Table of Contents (Pages i-viii)  pub. 1913

Bulletin Twelve

The Bremen Oil Field, by J.A. Bownocker, 68 p., illus., 1910

Bulletin Thirteen

The Maxville Limestone, by William Clifford Morse, 128 p., illus., 1910.

Bulletin Fourteen

Geology of the Columbus Quadrangle, by Clinton R. Stauffer, Goerge D. Hubbard and J.A. Bownocker, 133 p., illus., 1911. Maps   Topography; Historical or Areal Geology; and Physiography or Surficial Geology (at end of Volume 11)

Bulletin Fifteen

The Devonian and Mississippian Formations of Northeastern Ohio, by Charles S. Prosser, 574 p., illus., 1912
 

 

 
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Misc. Publications

Journals

Books

  • Description of the Loughry lands : a tract of seven hundred and forty five acres in Adams and Scioto Counties, Ohio : with plat and geological section: Portsmouth, Ohio : Enterprise Publishing Co., 1891