The third type of Intellectual property is a copyright. Copyright covers both published and unpublished works, existing from the moment a work is created and fixed in a tangible form.
Copyright does not protect ideas, only their expression or fixation. Things that can be copyrighted include books, music, photographs, movies, computer programs, works of art and architecture.
U.S. copyright law is based on English Common Law and statutory law. Copyright protection original resided with the publisher/printer but in the early eighteenth century this changed, and the modern practice of the copyright being held by the author began.
In the United States, copyrights can be registered with the Library of Congress.
In general in the United States, a copyright for most items ends 70 years after the death of the creator.
There is currently no such thing as an International Copyright, although many countries do offer limited protection to another's under assorted treaties, etc. The U.S. is a signatory of the two principal international copyright conventions, the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (Berne Convention) and the Universal Copyright Convention (UCC), and assorted bilateral agreements between the United States and other countries. There are still spots in the world where there is little or no copyright protection.
What is Copyright? (Library of Congress. U.S. Copyright Office) U.S. Copyright Office's homepage with links to copyright registration forms, copyright law, copyright research, etc.
Copyright Crash Course. (University of Texas. University of Texas Libraries) Overview of the topic.
Copyright Basics. (The Ohio State University. OSU Libraries. Copyright Resource Center) Overview of the topic, including material on what is considered "public domain".
Copyright Basics. (Library of Congress. U.S. Copyright Office) Overview of copyright, including information registration, notice, transfer of copyright, and other information on the topic.
Copyright Crash Course - Fair Use. (University of Texas. University of Texas Libraries) Quick overview of the topic including the four factors involved in determining fair use.
Copyright - Fair Use. (Library of Congress. U.S. Copyright Office) Overview of the topic.
Fair Use. (The Ohio State University. OSU Libraries. Copyright Resources Center) Overview of topic, includes short video and resources.
More Information on Fair Use. (Library of Congress. U.S. Copyright Office) Four factors involved in determining fair use.
How to Attribute a Creative Commons Licensed Work. (The Ohio State University. OSU Libraries. Copyright Resources Center) Information on the different types of Creative Commons Licenses, creating and using Creative Common Licensed materials, etc.
Plagiarism. (The Ohio State University. The Writing Center). Overview of what is plagiarism.
Plagiarism - What is Plagiarism? (The Ohio State University. OSU Libraries. Copyright Resources Center) Overview of the topic, discussion of the differences between copyright infringement and plagiarism, including resources.
What's the Difference Between Plagiarism and Copyright Infringement? (The Ohio State University. OSU Libraries. Copyright Resources Center) Two page handout about the differences between plagiarism and copyright infringement.
About Palagiarism.org. (p.org) Blog on the topic of plagiarism.
Circular 15A: Duration of Copyright. Library of Congress. Copyright Office. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Publishing Office, 2022. Breaks down the various rules applying to the length of time a piece is protected by copyright.
Circular 38A: International Copyright Relations of the United States. Library of Congress. U.S. Copyright Office. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Copyright Office, Library of Congress, October 2021. Addresses the topic of copyright protection in an international environment.
Copyright. (Digital Media Law Project) Basic overview on copyright, what it covers, ownership, etc.
Copyright & Fair Use. (Stanford University. Stanford University Libraries) Overview of copyright and fair use from a legal point of view with examples of cases, dockets, legislation, and regulations. Also includes links to blogs on the topic.
Copyright at Cornell Libraries: Copyright 101. (Cornell University. Cornell Libraries) Overview of the topic covering lincenses and open access, use of copyrighted materials, public domain, links to rources, etc.
Copyright Quick Guide. (Columbia University. Columbia University Libraries. Copyright Advisory Office) Provides an overview of copyright law, ownership, fair use, etc.
Copyright Services. (The Ohio State University. OSU Libraries. Copyright Resources Center) Ohio State specific services pertaining to copyright, fair use, etc.
Frequently Asked Questions. (Library of Congress. U.S. Copyright Office) Frequently asked questions received by the Copyright Office arrange by broad topical areas with short answers. Also available in Spanish.
The Future of Copyright in the Age of Artificial Intelligence. Aviv H. Gaon. Cheltenham, United Kingdom; Northampton, Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 2021. Explores the concepts of copyright and authorship against a backdrop of artificial intelligence.
International Copyright and Access to Knowledge. Sara Bannerman. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2016. Explores the impact Access to Knowledge (A2K) has/is having on copyright.
Legal Dictionary - Copyright. (The Free Dictionary by Farlex) Overview of the topic including a history of copyright law, what is copyrightable, etc.
The Politics of Online Copyright Enforcement in the EU: Access and Control. Trisha Meyer. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017. Explores the diametrically opposing concepts of copyright protection and the intellectual freedom of the web.
Research Handbook on the History of Copyright Law. Isabella Alexander and H. Tómas Gómex-Arostegui (Editors) Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016. A history of copyright and potential developments for its future.